Solved : UPSC CAPF 2015 General Studies Paper – part 4

46. “Cheetah” and “Chetak’ are the names of
A) Fighter aircrafts
B) Helicopters
C) Armoured vehicles
D) Infantry regiments
B) Helicopters

Cheetah” and “Chetak’ are the names of helicopters. The reason UPSC asked this was because it was in news. During the last three years (2012-13, 2013-14  &  2014-15), 06 accidents have taken place involving Cheetah and Chetak helicopters of Armed Forces in which 09 defence personnel have died. Wives of Army Officers have represented to the Government for replacement of Cheetah and Chetak helicopters to avoid casualties.

Phasing out of aircraft including helicopters and their replacement depends upon the national security / strategic objectives and operational requirements of the defence forces and is reviewed by the Government from time to time.  This is a continuous process.

The two main reasons for the frequent crashes are attributed to “human errors” and “technical defects”. In other words, “inadequate” training of pilots, ageing machines and shoddy maintenance practices all combine to constitute a deadly mix for the armed forces.

You may go through this PIB article – Replacement of Cheetah and Chetak Helicopters

47. Border Roads Organization is under the administrative control of the
A) Ministry of Defence
B) Ministry of Road Transport and Highways
C) Prime Minister’s Office
D) Indian Army
A) Ministry of Defence

Border Roads Organization is not under transport ministry, but under the Ministry of Defence. An exceptional fact like this is always important for UPSC exams. However, this was also in news and hence asked by UPSC.

The problem with BRO – BRO receives funds from the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways but undertakes the tasks assigned by the Ministry of Defence. The dual control of BRO is one of the principal reasons behind non-availability of funds and the organisation’s not up to the mark performance. In a bid to boost India’s border road connectivity especially along China, the Border Roads Organisation (BRO) will be entirely brought under the Ministry of Defence.

Here is the news article – Border Roads Organisation to be brought exclusively under Defence Ministry: Parrikar

More about BRO – The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) maintains roads that serve the borders areas of India. The organisation develops and maintains arterial roads on the borders of India. The BRO is also involved in the construction of a tunnel at the Rohtang pass. BRO’s activities have also helped to accelerate the economic development of the North and North-Eastern border states of India.

The BRO undertakes projects in India and friendly countries. These projects typically include developing roads, bridges, and airfields in hostile environments shunned by private enterprises, whether due to security concerns related to hostilities, or because of environmental challenges. Some of these projects carry out some of the development initiatives of the Indian government in foreign territories like Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Bhutan. These include the Delaram-Zaranj Highway in Afghanistan, completed and handed over to the Afghan government during 2008, and the restoration of the Farkhor and Ayni air bases in Tajikistan.

48. Which of the following were the main influences on Vasudeo Balvant Phadke?
1) Experience of the Deccan famine of 1876-77
2) Hindu revivalism
3) Theory of Drain of Wealth
4) Reformist idea of Phule
A) 1,2 and 3
B) 2, 3 and 4
C) 1 and 3 only
D) 2 and 4 only
A) 1,2 and 3

The question has been lifted straight from the book Modern India by Sumit Sarkar. Phadke seems to have been influences by Ranade’s lectures on drain of wealth, the experience of the Deccan famine of 1876–77, and the growing Hindu revivalist mood among Poona Brahman intellectuals.

Here is the reference to the exact page in the book – Modern India 1886-1947
49. The Punchhi Commission report was related to
A) Centre-State relations
B) Electoral reforms
C) Fiscal federalism
D) Creation of new States
A) Centre-State relations

The Second Commission on Centre-State Relations was formed on 27th April 2007 by the Government of India.  The Commission was chaired by Justice Madan Mohan Punchhi, former Chief Justice of India.
The objective of the commission was to look into the new issues of Centre-State relations keeping in view the changes that have been taken place in the polity and economy of India since the Sarkaria Commission had last looked at the issue of Centre-State relations over two decades ago.  The Commission made many recommendations in its seven volume report presented to Government on 30 March 2010.

Reference – Punchhi Commission Report on Centre -State Relations 2010




50. ‘Demand Polity’ and ‘Command Polity’are terms associated with
A) David Washbrook
B) Helen I. Tinker
C) Lloyd I. Rudolph and Susanixe H. Rudolph
D) Rajni Kothari
C) Lloyd I. Rudolph and Susanixe H. Rudolph

Lloyd Rudolph and  Susanixe Rudolph (they are husband-wife) have attempted to find correlates between the nature of polity of the state and economic characteristics. They have written a book – In Pursuit Of Lakshmi: The Political Economy Of The Indian State.

The demand polity refers to the situation when the government’s policies and programmes are for the short-term benefits of people. The allocations and welfare activities are carried out keeping elections in mind. The model of command polity refers to that political set-up in which allocations and distributions are oriented to the long-term goals and sustainable benefits to people. The role of the state in command politics is monopolistic and oligopolistic. In the existing world, both these polities are found in a mixed form to varying degrees.

Here is the link to their book – In Pursuit Of Lakshmi: The Political Economy Of The Indian State
51. Which one of the following is the principal place of sitting of the National Green Tribunal?
A) Kolkata
B) Hyderabad
C) Lucknow
D) New Delhi
D) New Delhi

New Delhi is the Principal Place of Sitting of the Tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai shall be the other 4 place of sitting of the Tribunal.

The National Green Tribunal has been established on 18.10.2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice.

The Tribunal’s dedicated jurisdiction in environmental matters shall provide speedy environmental justice and help reduce the burden of litigation in the higher courts. The Tribunal is mandated to make and endeavour for disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6 months of filing of the same.

This was again in news – NGT can’t settle issues on climate change, says MoEF

NGT has no jurisdiction over climate change related cases. The Ministry of Environment & Forests has said the National Green Tribunal cannot settle the issue or any application on climate change as it is a subject of international conventions and protocols.




52. In January 2015, Government of India approved the establishment of a Neutrino Observatory at
A) Bodi hills in Tamil Nadu
B) Kama hills in Manipur
C) Jampui hills in Tripura
D) Nallamala hills in Andhra Pradesh
A) Bodi hills in Tamil Nadu

Bodi West hills at Pattipuram near Devaram in Theni district. Here the Neutrino observatory will come up. A pioneer in the field of neutrino science, India was a world leader in 1965. In the mid-1990s, with the closing of the Kolar Gold Fields which was the site of the experiments, experimental neutrino research in India came to a halt, and the INO is expected to revive the lost advantage.

The three types of neutrinos, which were initially thought to be mass-less, are now believed to have a small mass. This was shown by observations of neutrino oscillation, which is a phenomenon by which one type of neutrino transforms into another.

Please go through this article. It contains many important information – What will be the India-based Neutrino Observatory’s impact?
53. Who among the following was NOT a Communist leader in colonial India?
A) P.C.Ray
B) S.A. Dange
C) Muzaffar Ahmad
D) Singaravelu


A) P.C.Ray

In India, people like M N Roy, S A Dange, M Singaravelu, Shaukat Usmani and Muzaffar Ahmad were supporters of socialism.

Prafulla Chandra Ray (P.C. Ray) was a Professor of Chemistry in the University. A pioneer in the field of pharmaceutical industry in India who started making chemicals at home -during British India, to prevent foreign companies making excessive profits at the cost of Indian patients.
54. Who among the following were well known as champions of women’s education in colonial India?
1) Sister Subbalaksmi
2) Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain
3) Keshub Chandra Sen
4) Ananda Coomaraswamy
A) 1,2,3 and 4
B) 1,2 and 3 only
C) 3 and 4 only
D) 1 and 2 only


B) 1,2 and 3 only.

Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain was a Muslim feminist and social reformer who dedicated her life to education and the empowerment of women. In 1916, she founded the Muslim Women’s Association, an organization that argued for women’s education and employment.  In 1926, Rokeya presided over the Bengal Women’s Education Conference held in Calcutta, the first noted attempt to bring women together in support of women’s education rights. She was active in debates and conferences concerning the advancement of women.

Sister Subhalakshmi was a dauntless savior of the neglected and socially marginal, widow community of India. All her life, she unflinchingly claimed the fundamental rights for women and the necessary improvement in the status of widow, particularly in the Madras Presidency of British India.

Kesab Chandra Sen is well know for women education.  Women’s education was one of Keshab’s greatest concern.

Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy (1877-1947) was one of the great art historians of the twentieth century whose multifaceted writings deal primarily with visual art, aesthetics, literature and language, folklore, mythology, religion, and metaphysics.

References – 1. Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain
2. Ananda K. Coomaraswamy: Life and Work
55. Ozone layer depletion is a rnajor phenomenon in
A) Troposphere
B) Stratosphere
C) Thcrmospherc
D) Exosphere
B) Stratosphere

As stratosphere contains the major portion of ozone, it is here that maximum ozone depletion takes place. The ozone layer lies in the stratosphere, in the upper level of our atmosphere. The ozone in it is spread very sparsely.

Stratospheric ozone filters out most of the sun’s potentially harmful shortwave ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This ozone has become depleted, due to the release of such ozone-depleting substances as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). When stratospheric ozone is depleted, more UV rays reach the earth. Exposure to higher amounts of UV radiation could have serious impacts on human beings, animals and plants.

Reference – Ozone Depletion: An Introduction
56. Which one among the following plains is associated with Limestone Topography?
A) Bajada plain
B) Alluvial plain
C) Karst plain
D) Penc plain
C) Karst plain

Karst is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks including limestone, dolomite and gypsum. It is characterized by sinkholes, caves, and underground drainage systems. Nearly all surface karst features are formed by internal drainage, subsidence, and collapse triggered by the development of underlying caves.

Water falls as rain or snow and soaks into the soil. The water becomes weakly acidic because it reacts chemically with carbon dioxide that occurs naturally in the atmosphere and the soil. This acid is named carbonic acid and is the same compound that makes carbonated beverages taste tangy. Rainwater seeps downward through the soil and through fractures in the rock responding to the force of gravity. The carbonic acid in the moving ground water dissolves the bedrock along the surfaces of joints, fractures and bedding planes, eventually forming cave passages and caverns.

Limestone is a sedimentary rock consisting primarily of calcium carbonate in the form of the mineral calcite. Rainwater dissolves the limestone by the following reaction: Calcite + Carbonic acid = Calcium ions dissolved in ground water + Bicarbonate ions dissolved in ground water.

Reference – USGS Geology in the Parks
57. Regur soil is most suitable for the cultivation of
A) Groundnut
B) Cotton
C) Tobacco
D) Sugarcane
B) Cotton

Regur Soils are black in colour and are also known as ‘black soils’. Since they are perfect for growing cotton, they are also called cotton soils. These soils are most characteristic of the Deccan trap (Basalt) region, spread over the north-west Deccan plateau and are made up of lava flows. They cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa and southern Madhya Pradesh and continue eastwards in the south, along the Godavari River and Krishna River Valleys.

Owing to the high proportion of clay, Regur soils are sticky when wet and consequently becomes difficult to plough. They are well-known for their ability to retain moisture. In addition, they are prosperous in soil nutrients, like calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, potash and lime. They are usually poor in phosphoric content. They develop thick fissures in the field during hot weather. This helps in their ventilation; hence their self ploughing eminence. This soil is viscous and unmanageable to work, unless tilled without delay, after the first or pre-monsoon showers.
58. The hydrogen atoms present in acetylene molecule are
A) acidic
B) basic
C) both acidic and basic
D) neutral
A) acidic

Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2. It is a hydrocarbon and the simplest alkyne. This colourless gas is widely used as a fuel and a chemical building block. It contains a triple carbon-carbon bond. The acidic nature of H-atom present at the end of the triple bonded carbon atom is due to the higher electronegativity of the sp-hybridised carbon.

Reference – Objective Pre Engineering Chemistry



59. Which one of the following compounds is NOT considered an acid?
A) BF3
B) AlCl3
C) NH3
C) NH3

This question is based on the concept of Lewis acid and base that we have studied in class 8-9.
A Lewis Acid is any species that can accept a pair of electrons. Examples are the BF3 and the AlCl3 molecules. A Lewis Base is a species that can donate a pair of electrons to an electron acceptor. Example is NH3.

Reference – Lewis Acid: Definition, Theory & Examples |
60. Which one among the following is the correct order of west flowing rivers in terms of decreasing size of their river basins?
A) Narmada —Tapi—Sabarmati—Mahi
B) Tapi —Narmada—Mahi—Sabarmati
C) Sabarmati—Narmada—Tapi—Mahi
D) Narmada —Tapi—Mahi—Sabarmati
D) Narmada —Tapi—Mahi—Sabarmati

Factual question. Again in such questions we are dependent on the use of logic. If you have studied about rivers of India from any book, it must be clear to you that Narmada will have largest basin amoong these four followed by Tapi. This will eliminate two options. Now among Sabarmati and Mahi, it is a bit difficult to guess. As it turns out in this case, Mahi has larger basin than Sabarmati.

Narmada – 99,000 sq km.
Tapi – 65,000 sq km.
Mahi – 35,000 sq km.
Sabarmati – 22,000 sq km.

Reference – India’s Water Wealth


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Please read these important articles about prelims preparation

1. How UPSC asks current affairs in GS Prelims

2. How to practice prelims MCQs for UPSC

3. Applying logic in UPSC General Studies Prelims

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